“a centre of human activity through five millennia”_ why we shouldn’t remove the roads around stonehenge _ citymetric

Stonehenge has a traffic problem. Lattice degeneration The A303 has been the UK government’s preferred trunk road from London to the West Country since 1958 – but it runs within 165 metres of the 5,000-year-old monument. Sprinkler world springville utah Narrowing to a single carriageway, it slows many a summertime car journey. Garden design pictures do yourself The bottleneck brings noise and pollution, and presents a barrier to exploring the landscape on foot.

On 12 January, transport secretary Chris Grayling announced plans for a Stonehenge Bypass, transforming the A303 into an “ Expressway to the South West”. Backyard baseball It involves building a dual carriageway and tunnel across the Stonehenge UNESCO World Heritage Site. How to build a deck mtg As Highways England launched a six-week public consultation on the plan, the estimated cost of £1.4bn was heralded by Historic England as “the biggest single investment ever made by government in this country’s heritage”.

The Stonehenge tunnel is, in fact, an old idea. Irrigation supply near me Proposed in the 1989 Roads for Prosperity government White Paper, which launched the last major programme of roadbuilding in England, over the subsequent three decades arguments over a variety of schemes have multiplied, at an estimated cost of £30m in consultants’ and lawyers’ fees.

This time around, the project is billed as in the best interests of cultural heritage. Flood irrigation advantages and disadvantages The existing road “ spoils the setting of Stonehenge”, suggests Highways England. Rock garden A new road would “improve our understanding and enjoyment of the Stonehenge monument,” chimes the joint National Trust and Historic England statement.

Another old idea is being revived hand-in-hand with the tunnel – heritage restoration. Drippers vape shop The focus is the stones, not their landscape. College softball pitchers Stonehenge is reimagined as a Stone Age exhibit untouched by modernity. Garden city tx The A303 would be grassed over at the stones while a new road twice as wide is cut across the World Heritage Site, but tunnelled within the paying visitors’ view. Football games unblocked The aesthetics of this “Stonehenge Restored” are determinedly Georgian. Softball savings com A stately monument within rolling lawns from which shuttles run along a new coaching-road between Bath and London. Usssa slow pitch softball rules That carriageway hidden from the monument, so customers can stroll an “authentic” landscape of the past, never glimpsing the present.

Neither by the public, nor by those who have the care of public monuments, is the true meaning of restoration understood. Sec basketball tournament scores It means the most total destruction … a destruction accompanied with false description of the thing destroyed.

In Ruskin’s alternate vision of a “living monument”, the qualities of age-value and patina emerge through layers built up and eroded through human life and the passage of time. How to install chain link fence In the 1870s, this became the logic of William Morris’s “Anti-Scrape” movement – the world’s first heritage campaign. Fantasy baseball espn Ruskin and Morris understood that erasing later features to restore traces of some imagined original period leads not just to Georgian follies, but to downright misrepresentation.

The 21st-century “scraping” of Stonehenge would conjure the illusion of an unchanging Neolithic relic. Small front garden designs pictures But the monument has been a centre of gravity attracting human activity through five millennia. Facebook search history delete The mosaic of henges, cursuses, round barrows, inhumations, settlements, enclosures, field systems – and even buildings and roads – represents an ongoing sequence of movement, building, living, and deposition. Asphalt 8 airborne hack It’s the prime example of what WG Hoskins famously described as the “palimpsest” of the English landscape, a layered document repeatedly written over.

This story encompasses the A303’s own history: laid out in the early 1800s as the “New Direct Road”, a coaching route from London to Exeter. Landscape ideas for side of house It was less used from the 1840s with the railway boom, then became a major road from 1933, being defined as a trunk road by the Ministry of Transport in 1958. Cbssports fantasy Stonehenge is not a site or an artefact, but an ever-changing landscape.

Driving west on the A303 today, we glimpse the monument. Landscaping with rocks ideas This modern view is endangered. Landscape design ideas for small front yards Since the 1960s, archaeology’s Rescue Movement has defended our past against the threat of destruction from the present day. Garden plans for front of house Today, it is Stonehenge’s modernity that is under threat from a narrow vision of the past.

Hiding the road from the stones would hide the stones from the public. Alabama softball pitcher Some 1.3m people will pass through the Stonehenge giftshop this year, but perhaps ten times that number will witness the monument from a passing vehicle. Garden design ideas photos Those thrilling, often unexpected views may not be celebrated among the iconic experiences of global prehistory, but they are surely among the most democratic. Drip drop lyrics taemin Through these encounters, Stonehenge lives on as a public space. Football schedule preseason Year by year since the 1980s, public access to Stonehenge has been gradually restricted. Tee ball age This bypass would deal another blow to any chance of seeing the monument without paying the £15.50 entrance fee.

For some, the tunnel is the best compromise. Uw softball roster New excavations would add to our understanding of the landscape (and bring jobs for archaeologists). Baseball online stores Others call for a longer tunnel. Basketball rio 2016 live score And some dismiss the project as a destructive “ time-bomb”. Fantasy basketball 2016 After all, with sliproads and dual carriageways, the project could result in a net increase in road surface within the World Heritage Site.

One promising idea is to make the A303 one-way westbound, building an alternative route for eastbound traffic away from the monument – cutting traffic at Stonehenge in half while saving millions. Irrigation definition In preserving the A303, that solution reminds us of the ongoing lives of our ancient monuments in the modern world.

Stonehenge’s value lies not just in its prehistory, but also in its modernity. Brad stoner painting Today, the A303 is a crucial part of the monument’s setting. Wiffle ball pitches Yes, we must reduce the traffic. Fence factory But why hide the stones from the world?

This May some of the biggest city-regions outside of London will be getting metro mayors. El patio cafe These include Greater Manchester, West Midlands, Liverpool, and West of England (Bristol) – all of which were obvious contenders for a devolution deal when the previous government launched this agenda two years ago.

Less predictable, however, was that Tees Valley would also be among that list, while larger places such as Leeds, Newcastle and Nottingham would be conspicuous by their absence. Facebook desktop This begs the question – how did the Middlesbrough city-region get a deal (including powers over skills, transport and planning) while other places have missed out?

The answer is that, while Tees Valley has been somewhat under the radar compared to bigger cities, it has forged ahead by doing many of the same things Greater Manchester did to secure the first major devolution deal in 2014:

Having a clear and consistent plan Unlike in some other places, local leaders in Tees Valley have offered a practical, evidenced “ask” from government from the outset, as well as a convincing strategy for how they could deliver services and growth more effectively at city-region level.

Consensus among local leaders Stakeholders from across Tees Valley’s businesses, councils, colleges and residents have worked together effectively to secure an agreement in the first place, and crucially to stick with it. Football teams nfl By speaking to government with one voice and demonstrating their ability to work together, they have been able to secure the best deal possible for the area.

The right geography. Baseball leagues near me Any proposed devolution deal must match the geography over which strategic decision-making can have the greatest impact on jobs, transport and housing, and over which people live their lives. Football games download for pc Tees Valley benefits from a relatively straightforward economic geography, meaning that those decisions can be made more easily and effectively. Fences play script This has also enabled local leaders to avoid the kinds of political challenges that have hampered efforts to find common ground in the North East and Yorkshire.

Agreeing to introduce a metro-mayor. Pitch in for baseball The former chancellor George Osborne made it clear that a metro-mayor would be a stipulation of any devolution deal, a requirement maintained by the new government. Little league baseball bat rules Leaders of Tees Valley’s local authorities were happy to meet this request – something which has proved a sticking point for places such as the North East.

Not only will this allow the electorate to hold an elected figure to account for the decisions made by local leaders, it also shows that the constituent local authorities are willing to cede some power upwards in order to benefit from the strategic powers that will be devolved downwards from central government.

Tees Valley’s progress belies a common theme we often hear from places who have been unable to secure an agreement – that the government’s requirements are too difficult to meet, and that Greater Manchester is an exception in having done so. Watch baseball online free The success of Tees Valley shows there is little foundation to these explanations – and that the onus is on other places to do what they can to secure a deal, before they fall further behind.

Indeed, the reward Tees Valley will enjoy in return for meeting the government’s conditions will go beyond the initial funding and powers that the city-region will receive next May. Facebook logo black The first devolution deal should be seen as just a starting point to implement the mayoral institutions and legal framework – all of which will enable the city-region to capitalise on future waves of devolution. Fantasy football names for girls For example, by the time the first metro-mayor takes office in Greater Manchester, it will be on its fourth iteration of the deal.

Similarly, Tees Valley is now well-positioned to take on more powers as the devolution agenda develops further – meaning the dark horse of devolution could forge further ahead of other bigger places in the years to come.