January 1917_ on the eve of revolution _ socialist alternative

Republished from 1917revolution.org as part of a series of articles that analyse and explain, month by month, the stormy events of the revolutionary year of the Russian revolution. Mlb playoffs streaming free The first in the series, by Niall Mulholland, looks at the events and situation during January 1917.

The month of January 1917 began with more setbacks for the Russian army, as the great imperialist slaughter or World War One drew closer to an end. Rock garden cafe On the Romanian front troops retreated. Pitch invader Morale in the Russian army was extremely low. Ncaa softball field dimensions One and a half million soldiers deserted in 1916. What is pitching woo Over half of the country’s peasant farmers were fighting in the war and their families left at home faced starvation.


At the same time, the Bolsheviks – the revolutionary party spearheaded by Lenin, which was to lead the socialist October revolution – saw their membership and influence rise steadily. Fastpitch softball tryouts They helped organise demonstrations to commemorate the failed 1905 revolution’s ‘Bloody Sunday’ when hundreds were gunned down by the Czarist state. Baseball players wives On 9 January, 30,000 Moscow workers went on strike, with 145,000 taking action in Petrograd (Prussian-sounding St Petersburg was renamed at the outbreak of the war). Garden spider web A one-day strike also took place in Baku, Nizhi Novgorod, Novocherkassk, Voronezh, Kharkov, Rostov-on-Don, the Donbass and other cities.

By 31 January, Petrograd was starving and the city stockpile of food would only last another 10 days. Fantasy sports for all Basic foodstuffs had quadrupled in price since the start of the war. Baseball fantasy names Huge food lines appeared in sub-zero conditions. Landscape ecology Crowds of women broke into stores.

For the masses, the things could not continue. Facebook search friends by city They were about to storm onto the stage of history. Small front yard landscaping ideas pictures How did the Czarist regime find itself on the verge of extinction? Disastrous war campaign exposes rotten regime

In late 1914, a series of strikes broke out, but by August social peace seemed to have been restored. Where to buy fabric War was declared, leading to a surge of Russian chauvinism and popular support for the Czar. Garden centre Workers’ organisations faced severe repression. Patchwork definition Bolsheviks in the Duma (parliament) were arrested and deported. Fantasy football yahoo mock draft The party paper, Pravda, was shut down.

Initially the Russian army inflicted some defeats on the German forces. Fantasy baseball trade analyzer But by 30 August, the Russian army had lost 300,000 soldiers at Tanneberg, in the eastern front. Little league baseball age chart Badly equipped and short of ammunition and rifles, the Russian army would face defeat after defeat on the battlefield. Irrigation direct At the same time, Russian officers treated the rank and file soldiers with contempt.

The war demonstrated the incompetence and rottenness of the Czarist regime. Frances conroy The Czar appointed and removed a succession of ministers. Garden ideas for small front yards In August 1915, he took direct control of the war effort, disastrously meddling in his generals’ plans. Front yard landscaping florida Much of the running of country was left to his wife, the Czarina, and her coterie, including the “debauched Monk”, Rasputin, a mystic figure with great political influence over the Czarina and her husband. Drip drop taemin lyrics The top of the tottering regime was steeped in obscurantism and superstition. Fantasy football league websites Popular unrest grew. Spring training 2017 In October 1916 a Petrograd police report stated that the city is “on the eve of great events with which those of 1905 were mere child’s play”. High pitch The British Ambassador to Russia, Sir George Buchanon, warned, “If the emperor continues to uphold his present reactionary advisers, a revolution is, I fear, inevitable”.

In December 1916, Rasputin was assassinated by leading figures from Petrograd society. Asphalt 8 apk They hoped to rid the regime of a symbol of decadence in order to try to save it. Alabama softball roster In January 1917, the Czar appointed his last prime minister, Prince Golitsyn, despite the hapless aristocrat’s plea that he was “dumbfounded” and had no interest in politics.

At the start of 1917, over 15 million Russians were under arms and war time industrial mobilisation had thrown the economy out of kilter. Flagstone patio design ideas Peasants were unable to export their produce and refused to sell food on the open market (the rouble was near worthless). Baseball games today The railway system had all but collapsed and few supplies could get to the front or to the main towns and cities. Basketball games to play Famine stalked not just the countryside but the main industrial cities. Garden stores near me Political crisis at the top as working class begins to stir

With the regime completely discredited, even the craven, pro-war ‘liberal’ and ‘reform’ parties went into opposition to the Czar when it became clear he would not make any concessions to popular demands. Top mlb players 2016 They called for the sacking of the most incompetent and reactionary ministers.

Plots were hatched by top military figures to get rid of the Czar in order to save the system overall. Big boy softball But the conspirators vacillated, fearing any such action could unleash revolution from below.

Meanwhile, working class organisations are recovering from the setbacks at the outbreak of war. Minecraft fence Strikes rose sharply to 55,000 in 1915 and almost double that figure again in 1916. Minor league baseball teams As prices rose faster than wages, the summer of 1916 witnessed militant strikes in Moscow, Kostrona and Ivano-Vosnessenst. Masonry supply Petrograd was rocked by a general strike of factories. Rock landscaping ideas When troops sent to put down the strikes instead fraternise with workers, Cossacks are needed to quell the workers’ protests.

As working class unrest grew, so did Bolshevik membership. Us basketball olympic team 2016 The party’s structures redeveloped, including the Petrograd city committee. Justbats With many veteran leaders exiled or imprisoned, a younger generation of party cadres took control of local leadership. High school softball field dimensions By 1 January, the Bolsheviks, though a relatively small party, grew in membership to around 23,000, and were largely concentrated in industrial pockets. American football online games Lenin and the Bolsheviks gain authority

The Mensheviks –the party with whom the Bolsheviks had split some years before – were in political disarray. Hitting drills volleyball A minority opposed the war while others gave barely-disguised support. Football games today on tv During the summer of 1916, militant strikes and a growing mood of war ‘defeatism’ saw a shift of working class support away from the Mensheviks’ equivocal position on war and peace.

As the revolutionary pitch rose in Russia in early 1917, Bolshevik leader, Vladimir Lenin, was exiled in Switzerland. Ncaa basketball tournament tv schedule Since 1914 Lenin was forced to swim against the tide due to the war hysteria and the betrayal of the parties of the 2 nd (socialist) International who supported the war aims of their own ruling classes.

But Lenin’s stature and authority grew from 1914 to 1917. Cornerstone natural resources After the collapse of the 2 nd International, he became a focus for anti-imperialism and genuine socialist internationalism.

In the months following the February revolution, the Bolsheviks won the support of the majority of the working class. Francesca battistelli concert This was not only due to the leadership role of Lenin and Trotsky during the tumultuous events of 1917. Fantasy football sleepers and busts It was also the fruit of many years of intense debate among Russian socialists about the character of the impending revolution and developing and clarifying a political programme, strategy and tactics for the working class to win power.

As the war dragged on and popular opposition to it grew, Lenin advised Bolsheviks to “organise cells in the army”, to “support all revolutionary actions of the masses of the proletariat” and to encourage “fraternisation between soldiers of belligerent nations, even in the trenches…”

The winter of 1916/1917 was exceptionally cold in Moscow and Petrograd, plummeting to minus 40 degrees centigrade. High pitch sound app Women stood in the open air queuing for scarce food and coal. Georgia softball camp The price of food suddenly shot up by 40% to 60%. Pitch angle At the same time, the rich continued to live in isolated splendour.

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